Annotated Bibliography

The SIRC Bibliography offers annotations of publications related to simulation topics. These useful descriptions can help guide faculty who are looking for quality sources to investigate further. Now you can search by category as well.

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 Pugh, C. & Youngblood, P.




 Development and validation of assessment measures for a newly developed physical examination simulator.


 Journal of Medical Informatics Association, 9(5), 448-460.



The authors, medical school faculty from Stanford University, reported on a mixed design study of second year medical students (n = 73) using a high fidelity computerized pelvic exam simulator to practice the process of pelvic examination. The authors analyzed computer generated simulator data and written clinical assessments collected from participants. Results of the study include identifying and defining four novel performance indicators of pelvic examination: time to complete exam, number of critical areas touched, maximum pressure of touch, frequency of touching an area. Statistics were calculated for reliability on each of the defined areas and three of the four correlated positively with accuracy on the written assessments. This study demonstrated a new method of analyzing data generated by a computerized simulator as well as deriving performance indicators from the simulator data, and the study also assessed the validity of the indicators derived by comparing participant results with their accuracy on written assessments. The authors concluded and supported with statistics that the new assessment measures used in the study provided an objective, reliable and valid method of assessing students’ pelvic exam techniques. Provided documented evidence to support the use of a simulator in assessing medical students’ performance on pelvic exam.

Annotated By:

 Carol S. Coose, EdD, RN, CNE


  Learning Outcomes

Learning Outcomes
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