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A confederate is an individual other than the patient who is scripted in a simulation to provide realism, additional challenges, or additional information for the learner (e.g. paramedic, receptionist, family member, lab technician).
CSE, CSA, CPX
A clinical skills or clinical practice examination (CSE, CSA, CPX) is a station or series of stations designed to assess the key clinical competencies of history-taking, physical examination, communication, and interpersonal and professionalism skills. Learners are expected to structure the history, physical examination, and/or other tasks (counseling, education, etc.) necessary based on the presenting complaint. Documentation of findings, differential diagnosis/diagnosis, diagnostic work-up, and/or therapeutic work-up may be included. Learners are evaluated via direct observation, checklists, learner presentation or written follow-up exercises. The examinations can be either formative or summative and may involve feedback. Station length is typically 10-20 minutes, but can be longer.
Standardized Patient and Simulation Terminology Standards of Practice (retrieved from http://aspeducators.org/terminology-standards 04/14/2012)
describes a systematic process for eliciting written feedback from experts about a topic. This method may be done electronically and usually involves several rounds of questioning with a summary of the participants’ feedback being circulated in an effort to work toward consensus or agreement on the topic (Polit & Beck, 2012).
is essentially a measure of consistency. Reliability can exist in the absence of validity, but the interpretation of data cannot be valid if the data are not reliable. Furr and Bacharach (2008) define reliability as, “the extent to which differences in individuals’ scores produced using an evaluation instrument are consistent with differences in their true abilities” (p. 82). For performance evaluation, three types of reliability include inter-rater reliability, intra-rater reliability and inter-instrument reliability.
refers to, how well theory and evidence support the way evaluation scores are used (AERA, APA & NCME, 1999).
Gynecological Teaching Associates are women who are specifically trained to teach, assess, and provide feedback to learners about accurate pelvic, rectal and/or breast examination techniques. They also address the communication skills needed to provide a comfortable exam in a standardized manner, while using their bodies as teaching tools in a supportive, non-threatening environment.
Male Urogenital Teaching Associates are men who are specifically trained to teach, assess, and provide feedback to learners about accurate urogenital and rectal examination techniques. They also address the communication skills needed to provide a comfortable exam in a standardized manner, while using their bodies as teaching tools in a supportive, non-threatening environment.
The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a station or series of stations designed to assess performance competency in individual clinical or other professional skills. Stations are carefully structured and designed to be easily reproducible. Learners are evaluated via direct observation, checklists, learner presentation or written follow-up exercises. The examinations are generally summative but may involve feedback. Stations tend to be short, typically 5-10 minutes, but can be longer.
Standardized/Simulated Patients are individuals who are trained to portray a patient with a specific condition in a realistic, standardized and repeatable way (where portrayal/presentation varies based only on learner performance). SPs can be used for teaching and assessment of learners including but not limited to history/consultation, physical examination and other clinical skills in simulated clinical environments. SPs can also be used to give feedback and evaluate student performance.
Certification of Simulation
The process of approving that aor program meets certain published standards