SIRC Glossary

Search the Glossary of Terms to find definitions that pertain to the SIRC site.



Browse the glossary using this index

Special | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | ALL

Page:  1  2  3  4  (Next)
ALL

C

Certification of Simulation

The process of approving that a simulation or simulation program meets certain published standards

Clinical Simulation Center

Environment that serves as a resource to learners and instructors during the development, implementation and evaluation of simulation activities

Clinical Simulation Laboratory

Environment that serves as a resource to learners and instructors during the development, implementation and evaluation of simulation activities

Confederate

A confederate is an individual other than the patient who is scripted in a simulation to provide realism, additional challenges, or additional information for the learner (e.g. paramedic, receptionist, family member, lab technician).

CSE, CSA, CPX

A clinical skills or clinical practice examination (CSE, CSA, CPX) is a station or series of stations designed to assess the key clinical competencies of history-taking, physical examination, communication, and interpersonal and professionalism skills. Learners are expected to structure the history, physical examination, and/or other tasks (counseling, education, etc.) necessary based on the presenting complaint. Documentation of findings, differential diagnosis/diagnosis, diagnostic work-up, and/or therapeutic work-up may be included. Learners are evaluated via direct observation, checklists, learner presentation or written follow-up exercises. The examinations can be either formative or summative and may involve feedback. Station length is typically 10-20 minutes, but can be longer.

Standardized Patient and Simulation Terminology Standards of Practice (retrieved from http://aspeducators.org/terminology-standards 04/14/2012)

Cue

Information provided by instructors or designated participants in the simulation that helps the student progress through the simulation activity by providing information about the step the student is on or is approaching

D

Debriefing

Activity that follows a simulation experience led by a facilitator wherein feedback is provided on the simulation participants’ performance while positive aspects of the completed simulation are discussed and reflective thinking encouraged

Delphi Method

describes a systematic process for eliciting written feedback from experts about a topic. This method may be done electronically and usually involves several rounds of questioning with a summary of the participants’ feedback being circulated in an effort to work toward consensus or agreement on the topic (Polit & Beck, 2012).

E

Evaluation Reliability

is essentially a measure of consistency. Reliability can exist in the absence of validity, but the interpretation of data cannot be valid if the data are not reliable. Furr and Bacharach (2008) define reliability as, “the extent to which differences in individuals’ scores produced using an evaluation instrument are consistent with differences in their true abilities” (p. 82). For performance evaluation, three types of reliability include inter-rater reliability, intra-rater reliability and inter-instrument reliability.

Evaluation Validity

refers to, how well theory and evidence support the way evaluation scores are used (AERA, APA & NCME, 1999).

F

Feedback

Information given to a participant from an instructor, simulator or peer regarding his understanding of concepts or performance of skills

Fidelity

The degree to which either a simulation encounter or simulation equipment approaches reality

Formative Evaluation

Evaluation wherein the evaluator’s focus is on the learner’s progress towards goal attainment. A process for determining the competence of a person engaged in a healthcare activity for the purpose of providing constructive feedback for that person to improve

G

GTA

Gynecological Teaching Associates are women who are specifically trained to teach, assess, and provide feedback to learners about accurate pelvic, rectal and/or breast examination techniques. They also address the communication skills needed to provide a comfortable exam in a standardized manner, while using their bodies as teaching tools in a supportive, non-threatening environment.

Guided Reflection

Process encouraged by the instructor during debriefing that reinforces the critical aspects of the experience and encourages insightful learning allowing the participant to link theory with practice and research

H

High Fidelity

Experiences using full scale computerized patient simulators, virtual reality or standardized patients that are extremely realistic and provide a high level of interactivity and realism for the learner

L

Low Fidelity

Experiences such as case studies, role-playing, using partial task trainers or static manikins to immerse students in a clinical situation or practice a specific skill

M

Manikin

Full or half body representation of a patient for practice

Moderate Fidelity

Experiences that are more technologically sophisticated such a computer-based self-directed learning systems simulations in which the participant relies on a two- dimensional focused experience to problem solve, perform a skill and make decisions or the use of manikins more realistic than static low fidelity ones having breath sounds, heart sounds and/or pulses

MUTA

Male Urogenital Teaching Associates are men who are specifically trained to teach, assess, and provide feedback to learners about accurate urogenital and rectal examination techniques. They also address the communication skills needed to provide a comfortable exam in a standardized manner, while using their bodies as teaching tools in a supportive, non-threatening environment.

N

Nursing Education Simulation Framework

A consistent and empirically supported model to guide the design and implementation and evaluation of simulations

O

OSCE

The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) is a station or series of stations designed to assess performance competency in individual clinical or other professional skills. Stations are carefully structured and designed to be easily reproducible. Learners are evaluated via direct observation, checklists, learner presentation or written follow-up exercises. The examinations are generally summative but may involve feedback. Stations tend to be short, typically 5-10 minutes, but can be longer.

S

Simulation

An attempt to mimic essential aspects of a clinical situation with the goal of understanding and managing the situation better when it occurs in actual clinical practice. A technique that uses a situation or environment created to allow persons to experience a representation of a real event for the purpose of practice, learning, evaluation, testing, or to gain understanding of systems or human actions

Simulation Encounter

Clinical situation replicated in which participants need to use all or some of their assessment, psychomotor, critical thinking or managerial skills

Simulation Experience

Clinical situation replicated in which participants need to use all or some of their assessment, psychomotor, critical thinking or managerial skills

Simulation Fidelity

The physical, contextual, and emotional realism that allows persons to experience a simulation as if they were operating in an actual healthcare activity

Simulation Guideline

A recommendation of the qualities for simulation fidelity, simulation validity, simulation program, or for formative or summative evaluation

Simulation Program

A formal workshop, course, class, or other activity that uses a substantial component of simulation as a technique

Simulation Standard

A statement of the minimum requirements for simulation fidelity, simulation validity, simulation program, or for formative or summative evaluation

Simulation Validity

The quality of a simulation or simulation program that demonstrates that the relationship between the process and its intended purpose is specific, sensitive, reliable, and reproducible

Simulator

A system that tries to replicate a psychomotor skill, procedure or the experience of providing for the physiological, educational or emotional needs of a patient

SP

Standardized/Simulated Patients are individuals who are trained to portray a patient with a specific condition in a realistic, standardized and repeatable way (where portrayal/presentation varies based only on learner performance). SPs can be used for teaching and assessment of learners including but not limited to history/consultation, physical examination and other clinical skills in simulated clinical environments. SPs can also be used to give feedback and evaluate student performance.

Summative Evaluation

Evaluation occurring at the end of a learning period where learners are provided with feedback about their attainment of learning objectives. A process for determining the competence of a person engaged in a healthcare activity for the purpose of certifying with reasonable certainty that they are able to perform that activity in practice

Page:  1  2  3  4  (Next)
ALL